• "Environmental pollution is an incurable disease. It can only be prevented."

  • "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe."

  • "What we are doing to the forests of the world is but a mirror reflection of what we are doing to ourselves and to one another.”

  • "I can find God in nature, in animals, in birds and the environment."

  • "We won't have a society if we destroy the environment."

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Eco-socialism, green socialism or socialist ecology is an ideology merging aspects of Marxism, socialism, green politics, ecology and alter-globalization. Eco-socialists generally believe that the expansion of the capitalist system is the cause of social exclusion, poverty, war and environmental degradation through globalization and imperialism, under the supervision of repressive states and transnational structures.[1]

Eco-socialists advocate the dismantling of capitalism and the state, focusing on collective ownership of the means of production by freely associated producers and restoration of the commons.[1]


  • 1 Ideology
  • 2 History
    • 2.1 1880s-1930s - Marx, Morris and influence on the Russian Revolution
    • 2.2 1970s-1990s - Rise of environmentalism and engagement with Marxism and 'actually existing socialism'
    • 2.3 1990s onwards - Engagement with the anti-globalization movement and The Ecosocialist Manifesto
    • 2.4 Influence on current Green and socialist movements
    • 2.5 Influence on “existing socialist” regimes
    • 2.6 Ecosocialist International Network (EIN) and other international eco-socialist organisations
  • 3 Critique of capitalist expansion and globalisation
    • 3.1 Use and exchange value
    • 3.2 The "second contradiction" of capitalism
    • 3.3 The role of the state and transstatal organisations
  • 4 Tensions within the Eco-Socialist discourse
  • 5 Critique of other forms of green politics
    • 5.1 Opposition to within-system approaches, voluntarism and technological fixes
    • 5.2 Critique of Green economics
    • 5.3 Critique of Deep Ecology
    • 5.4 Critique of bioregionalism
    • 5.5 Critique of variants of eco-feminism
    • 5.6 Critique of Social Ecology
    • 5.7 Opposition to Malthusianism and Neo-Malthusianism
    • 5.8 The "two varieties of environmentalism"
  • 6 Critique of other forms of socialism
    • 6.1 Critique of 'Actually Existing Socialisms'
    • 6.2 Critique of the wider socialist movement
  • 7 Eco-socialist strategy
    • 7.1 Agency
    • 7.2 Prefiguration
    • 7.3 Internationalization of prefiguration and the 'Eco-socialist Party'
  • 8 ’The Revolution’ and transition to eco-socialism
    • 8.1 The immediate aftermath of the revolution
    • 8.2 Transnational trade and capital reform
    • 8.3 Ecological production
    • 8.4 Commons, property and ‘usufruct’
    • 8.5 Non-violence
  • 9 Criticisms of eco-socialism
  • 10 List of eco-socialists
  • 11 See also
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

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Political ecology is the study of the relationships between political, economic and social factors with environmental issues and changes. Political ecology differs from apolitical ecological studies by politicizing environmental issues and phenomena.

The academic discipline offers wide-ranging studies integrating ecological social sciences with political economy (Peet and Watts 1996, p. 6) in topics such as degradation and marginalization, environmental conflict, conservation and control, and environmental identities and social movements (Robbins, 2004, p. 14).



The term "political ecology" was first coined by Frank Thone in an article published in 1935 (Nature Rambling: We Fight for Grass, The Science Newsletter 27, 717, Jan. 5: 14). it has been widely used since then in the context of human geography and human ecology, but with no real systematic definition. Anthropologist Eric R. Wolf gave it a second life in 1972 in an article entitled “Ownership and Political Ecology,” in which he discusses how local rules of ownership and inheritance “mediate between the pressures emanating from the larger society and the exigencies of the local ecosystem” (Wolf 1972, p. 202). Other origins include other early works of Eric R. Wolf as well as John W. Cole and Hans Magnus Enzensberger and others in the 1970s and 1980s.

The origins of the field in the 1970s and 1980s were a result of the development of radical development geography and cultural ecology (Bryant 1998, p. 80). Historically, political ecology has focused on phenomena in and affecting the developing world; since the field’s inception, “research has sought primarily to understand the political dynamics surrounding material and discursive struggles over the environment in the third world” (Bryant 1998, p. 89).

Scholars in political ecology are drawn from a variety of academic disciplines, including geography, anthropology, development studies, political science, sociology, forestry, and environmental history. Some modern prominent scholars include:

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